How the Gospels Teach Us to Read the Old Testament (Hays)

In the first chapter, after explaining how the Old Testament teaches us how to read the Gospels, Hays examines how Luke 24 teaches us how to read the Old Testament. He concludes with three observations:

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Richard Bauckham on Wholeness in James

One of the major themes weaved throughout the book of James is the idea of “wholeness.” Often in our translation the word for wholeness (τέλειος) is translated as “perfect.” This is an unhelpful translation because it gives that connatation that James is just calling for a sinless morality. James envisions wholeness as a life that is characterized by both doing and being. We cannot “do” without “being” and likewise we cannot “be” without “doing.” Richard Bauckham, in his excellent book on James, lays out five ways that James speaks of this wholeness:

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Differentiating the Good Seed from the Rest in Matthew 13.38

Does the ESV get the translation of Matthew 13.38 correct? 

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Thoughts on Chrysostom's First Sermon on Matthew

Chrysostom notes the many difficulties in the text of Matthew. He says that it may be plain at first site but when one focuses on the text many question arises…

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Chrysostom and the reason for the four-fold Gospel

What then? Was not one evangelist sufficient to tell all? One indeed was sufficient; but if there be four that write, not at the same times, nor in the same places, neither after having met together, and conversed one with another, and then they speak all things as it were out of one mouth, this becomes a very great demonstration of the truth.

He goes on to say…

But if there be anything touching times or places, which they have related differently, this does not injure the truth of what they have said. And these thing too, so far as God shall enable us, we will endeavor, as we proceed, to point out; requiring you, together with what we have mentioned, to observe, that in the chief heads, those which constitute our life and furnish our doctrine, nowhere is any of them found to have disagreed, no not ever so little.

He then gives a list of doctrines that they agree on:

  1. God became man
  2. He did miracles
  3. He was crucified, buried, rose again, and ascended
  4. He will judge
  5. He has given commandments pertaining to salvation
  6. He brought in a law not contrary to the Old Testament
  7. He is a Son
  8. He is only-begotten
  9. He is a true Son
  10. He is of the same substance with the Father

in Homilies on Matthew: Homily 1

Necessary Ending to the Gospel of Matthew


Dale Allison has some helpful remarks regarding the resurrection as the perfect ending to the Gospel of Matthew.

  1. Without the resurrection Jesus’ words are vacant and his opponents exonerated. With it Jesus is vindicated, his cause and authority confirmed, and his opponents disgraced.
  2. The earthquake, the movement from heaven to earth, and the resurrection from the tomb together make the vindication of Jesus an eschatological event. When the Messiah enters into suffering and death and then is raised to new life amidst signs and wonders, he plays out in his own life the eschatological scenario. The end of Jesus is the end of the world in miniature.
  3. The resurrection – the full meaning of which only becomes apparent in 28:16–20 – makes Jesus himself an illustration of his own teaching. He is, like the prophets before him, wrongly persecuted because of his loyalty to God, and he gains great reward in heaven. He finds his life after losing it. He is the servant who becomes great, the last who becomes first.
  4. There is a happy contrast between chapter 2 and 28, the only two places where angels are active participants in the story. In the former the Gentile magi inform Herod and the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem, including the chief priests, of events surrounding the advent of the Messiah. In the latter Gentile soldiers announce to the chief priests of Jerusalem the events surround the resurrection of Jesus. In the former the king opposes the infant Messiah and tries to kill him. In the latter the leaders counter the resurrection by setting a guard at the tomb, and when that fails by promulgating a false rumor. In the former the faithful magi worship Jesus and rejoice with great joy. In the latter the faith women worship Jesus and go on their way with great joy.

Davies, W. D., and Dale C. Allison Jr. Matthew 19–28: Volume 3. 1st ed. T&T Clark, 2004, p. 673