The early church is working with an entirely different worldview and thought when it comes to Holy Scripture. It isn’t necessarily a method that we can just mimic but it is a whole approach when engaging the text. This is one of the chasms that we may or may not be able to cross when it comes to the oft times odd (to us) figural/allegorical/christological approach to reading scripture.
Frederick Bruner, one of the masterful commentators of Matthew, helpfully reflects on the idea of the "need" and "help" nature of the Beatitudes.
Why is the institution of the Lord's Supper not in the fourth Gospel? Richard Bauckham explains.
Richard Bauckham in his recent collection of essays/lectures, Gospel of Glory, writes about the possibility of the sacraments in the Gospel of John. One of the striking aspects of the fourth gospel is the absence of the sacraments but many theologians and scholars throughout history recognize the presence of sacramental type language throughout. Bauckham argues that John in chapter six is making an allusive reference to the Lord’s Supper to highlight the believer participating in the life of Jesus.
In James Dunn’s helpful collection of essays in Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels he says this regarding scholarship pitting the imminent and future kingdom of God sayings in the Synoptics against each other.
Mark Bowald in describing Karl Barth’s typology of theological hermeneutics cited this helpful quote about the lens of which we should read Holy Scripture.
A simple reading guide for John Barclay's Paul and the Gift. This consists of about 200 pages of the book that I think will help you understand the current debate and also give you the tools to wrestle with his thesis regarding his understanding of gift in Paul.
A summary of Dr. Timothy Jones helpful post about online theological education
Helpful information regarding formatting publishers according to the SBL Style Guide